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Cracovia - tonus Poloniae urbs celeberrima. Cracow was mentioned for the first time in the years 965 and 966. It became the main center of the state and the seat of the Polish kings in the eleventh century and continued to be the capital right into the seventeenth. The plan of the city, laid out after its foundation in 1257 and one of the most advanced in Europe, has survived almost unchanged to the present day. The city's rapid development was stimulated by Wladyslaw Lo-kietek, who unified the Polish lands and had himself crowned king in the Cathedral on the Wawel in 1320. In the fourteenth century several magnificent Gothic buildings were raised in Cracow, including the royal residence and the Cathedral on the Wawel (the third), the famous Church of St. Mary, the Town Hall, and the Cloth Hall. Of the defensive walls surrounding the town only the Barbican, the Florian Gate, and three towers have survived. In Cracow, Gothic painting and sculpture reached a peak in the fifteenth century. Evidence of the interest in the development of learning in mediaeval Cracow was the foundation of the university by Casimir the Great in 1364. It was the oldest in Poland and the second oldest in central Europe. In the following two centuries it was to enjoy a fame reaching far beyond the land of the Jagiellons. The sixteenth century was Cracow's "Golden Age." Thanks to the initiative of King Sigismund I, the Old, it developed into an outstanding center of Renaissance art. Italian artists star...
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